PAST LECTURES - Click on the title to view a recording
Engineering for the Middle of Nowhere
Toby Cumberbatch, Ph.D
Professor of Electrical Engineering, Cooper Union
Humankind is on the verge of extinction—our life support system, the earth, is no longer able to accommodate current human activity. To ensure future supplies of water, food and energy, radical changes in infrastructure and lifestyle are required. Engineering solutions must do more with less, use what’s at hand and live with the land.
Offshore Critical Minerals: What are They and Why Should I Care?
Jeff Reidenauer, Ph.D.
Chief, Marine Minerals Division, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) within the U.S. Department of Interior has jurisdiction over marine mineral development on the nation’s Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). There has been renewed, recent interest in seabed minerals that are critical to the national economy and defense. Critical minerals are minerals with supply chains that are vulnerable to disruption. Currently, the U.S. has designated 35 minerals as critical. For 31 of the 35 critical minerals, the U.S. imports more than half of its annual consumption. The U.S. has no domestic production for 14 of the critical minerals and is completely dependent on imports to supply its demand. Critical minerals are essential to the production of high-tech equipment in a wide variety of sectors including energy production, national defense, battery technology, information technology, and health care. There are three primary types of offshore mineral deposits that contain potential commercial concentrations of critical minerals; polymetallic nodules, ferromanganese crusts, and seafloor massive sulfides. These deposits contain several of the designated critical minerals such as manganese, cobalt, lithium, and rare earth elements. Marine mineral deposits containing potential critical minerals occur on the OCS with even higher levels for resources offshore the U.S. Pacific territories. Portions of the seabed in international waters, especially in the central Pacific Ocean, also contain a high potential for critical minerals and may be developed by other nations in the next few years.
Reconfiguring Graph Colorings
Heather Russell, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Mathematics, University of Richmond
A reconfiguration system provides a convenient mathematical framework for studying the structure of the solution set to a given problem. In such a system, the set of solutions is equipped with a reconfiguration rule allowing one to iteratively transition between solutions. In this talk, we will explore properties of reconfiguration systems for graph colorings which can be used to model a variety of scheduling problems. Our investigation will focus on connectivity properties of these systems. We will also demonstrate software our research group at the University of Richmond has developed to aid in visualization and conjecture testing. No prior knowledge of graphs is necessary. The talk will begin with the definition of a graph and provide lots of examples along the way!
November 10, 2020
Primordial Black Holes, Dark Matter, and the Post-Inflationary Universe
Dr. Scott Watson
Associate Professor of Physics, Syracuse University
LIGO has detected several gravity wave signals from black holes with masses around 30 times the mass of the sun. Whereas, direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments have so far failed to detect any sign of dark matter particles. In this talk, we will explore whether the primordial formation of black holes — with properties like those detected by LIGO — could be part or all of the cosmological dark matter. It turns out the prediction of such black holes could be intimately connected to addressing the puzzle of a quantum theory of gravity and the end of cosmological inflation. That is, string theory may predict exactly such a dark matter candidate.
October 20, 2020
The Tangle Method: A Mathematical Model for Protein DNA Interactions
Dr. Candice Price
Assistant Professor of Mathematics, Smith College
Topological techniques applied to DNA topology have thrived in the last 50 years with the characterization of 2-string rational tangles, the discovery of new knot invariants, computer software such as KnotPlot, which provide access to high-quality visualizations and new ways to verify experimental and analytical results. The characterization of 2-string rational tangles led to the development of the tangle method, which models the mechanism of the action of certain proteins on DNA. In this presentation, we will take a journey together through the description of the tangle method and apply it to an example of protein action on DNA in order to discover the mechanism of this protein.
September 29, 2020
Building a Data-driven Government Focusing on Citizen Services
Robin Thottungal '08
Chief Technology Officer/Chief Data Scientist, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Data science is key to addressing national challenges with greater agility. Thottungal will discuss how this digital transformation has become the driver behind a better understanding of the complex interdependencies between our air, water, land and public health. By embracing emerging technology strategies such as microservices-based architecture and user-centered design, we can better capture the relationships and detect anomalies in the terabytes of data that we intake each year.
Exploring Barnacle Exoskeleton Formation
March 10, 2020
Associate Professor of Physics, Colgate University
Barnacles are ancient arthropods that, as adults, consist of a soft organism surrounded by a hard, mineralized, outer shell that the organism produces for protection. While research has been done into the glue-like cement that barnacles use to adhere to a variety of surfaces, less is known about the barnacle exoskeleton. Professor Metzler will present preliminary data exploring the changes that occur as the barnacle cyprid undergoes metamorphosis to become a sessile barnacle with a mineralized exoskeleton. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) data, in conjunction with confocal microscopy data, show the morphological and chemical changes the barnacle undergoes within the first 48 hours following metamorphosis and how climate change can impact these properties.
The Pathway to Drug Development and Importance of the FDA (Compared to the Good Old Days)
Carol Duffy, DO, FACC, FACOI
February 18, 2020
Executive Director, Head U.S. Clinical Trial Excellence, Novartis Pharmaceutical Corp.
Of every compound identified by the pharmaceutical industry as a possible medication, the disease target needs to be carefully defined, the development timeline is incredibly long, the cost is very high, and the success rate is very low. Precipitating situations/crises involving patient safety and efficacy over the past 170 years has led to the current process and phases of clinical trial investigations required to prove safety and efficacy in these potential medications. This lecture will present the history and the research/stages/timing involved in pharmaceutical drug development from onset to potential FDA approval for patients and consumers.
Imaging the Source of Large Subduction Zone Earthquakes
Anne Becel - November 12, 2019
Assistant Research Professor of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Univ. Earth Institute
Subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes and most devastating associated tsunamis on the planet. Although our ability to anticipate the timing and impact of future great earthquakes remains elusive, recent advances in Earth Science have allowed to improve our understanding of the physical processes that trigger large earthquakes and control how they evolve.
Looking Inside of Rocks
Dustin Crandall - October 22, 2019
Research Engineer, National Energy Technology Lab, West Virginia
Computed tomography scanners enable researchers to examine different phenomena important for energy production - from dynamic fluid-floods within rocks to identification of complex structures and material features. Dr. Crandall will illustrate research at the National Energy Technology Laboratory that is focused on examining the fundamental physical phenomena that control flow in the subsurface.
Cosmic Lego: Making Molecules on Stardust
Gianfranco Vidali - September 24, 2019
Professor of Physics, Syracuse University
How did life emerge on Earth? This question might not have an answer yet but, as proposals for a non-terrestrial origin of life have gained some traction lately, astrophysicists and astrochemists have begun to ask whether there are complex enough molecules in space which can be the building blocks of life.
Changing the World of 3D Printing
Jack Stubbs - April 9, 2019
Director of the Prototype Development and 3D Printing Lab, Institute for Simulation and Training, University of Central Florida
Abstract: The Prototype Development and 3D Print Lab at the Applied Research Institute of the University of Central Florida is actively involved in advancing the state-of-the-art of 3D printing. The Institute is developing novel approaches to many areas of application in 3D printing including composite structure approaches to create tunable mechanical properties within 3D printed materials, deformation based additive manufacturing to reduce print time and material use, 3D printed optical waveguides and acoustic arrays. This lecture will review some of the technological advances and application areas in medical simulation, pre-surgical planning, patient specific medical device design and augmented medical devices. Mr. Stubbs will have 3D printed models and materials available to view and discuss.
Bioethics and Bioengineering: What We Can Do vs What We Should Do
Dr. Stephen Macleod - March 12, 2019
Loyola University Medical Center
Professor, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Abstract: Advances in Bioengineering have allowed surgeons to make significant advances in patient diagnosis management. With virtual surgical planning, it is possible to plan surgery and design patient specific implants from the comfort of the office, saving time in the operating room and improving patient safety. Frequently, this technology is used to plan solutions to complications of treatment for other conditions. This presentation will demonstrate some of the developments in bioengineering used for reconstruction of defects complicating other treatments, and discuss the ethics of rendering treatments associated with known significant complications.
The Chemistry of Computers
Dr. Laura Kosbar - February 26, 2019
IBM, T.J. Watson Research Center, Research Staff Member
Abstract: Computational chemistry has become the key to advances in chemical knowledge including modeling of molecular structure and reactivity, as well as facilitating medicinal chemistry and drug design. What may be less apparent is the role that chemistry has played in the design and manufacture of computers themselves. Advanced materials and chemical processing have been responsible for improving the speed and reliability of computers, as well as reducing the size of powerful microelectronic chips that power all electronic devices - from phones and laptops to video games. This talk will demonstrate how the research and design of materials has contributed to the interconnected information age in which we live.
Abstract: On September 14, 2015, a gravitational wave signal was received by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). It was generated by the collision of two black holes, each around 30 times as massive as the sun, about 1.3 billion light years away. The signal, the first ever reception of gravitational waves, tells the story of the last two tenths of a second of the lives of those two black holes, and the first few milliseconds of the life of the 60 solar mass black hole that they formed. Since then, LIGO and its sister project Virgo have heard signals from a number of other collisions; the most spectacular was the reception on August 17, 2017 of the signal of a collision between two neutron stars, similar in “sound” to a black hole collision, but in this case also accompanied by flashes of gamma rays, visible light, radio waves and X-rays. This talk will explain the basics of gravitational waves, how we detect them, and the highlights of what we are beginning to learn about the universe by observing it in this new way.
Dr. Oliver Jagoutz, MIT, Associate Professor of Geology, October 16, 2018 - Low Latitude Arc-Continent Collision as a Driver for Global Cooling
Abstract: Throughout most of Earth’s history, the global climate was much warmer than the climate we are experiencing today and the poles were mostly ice-free. However, the Earth has experienced a few so-called ice-ages where poles were covered in ice, like today. These ice-ages are relatively brief periods and irregularly spaced in time. The global climate is dominantly controlled by pCO2 concentration in the atmosphere/ocean system. Over geologic time, atmospheric pCO2 is regulated by a balance between sources and sinks, including the products of volcanism, metamorphism and silicate weathering, which are fundamentally the results of plate tectonic processes. Attempts to relate particular episodes of Cretaceous to recent climate change to specific tectonic events remain controversial.
Dr. Niklas Manz, The College of Wooster, Asst. Professor of Physics, Tuesday, September 18, 2018 - Patterns Around You: Excitable Systems in the Lab, in Nature, and on Humans
Abstract: Excitation waves are propagating spatiotemporal structures observed in many biological, chemical, and physical systems. They can be described as a reaction-diffusion (RD) wave in which an autocatalytic reaction zone propagates via diffusion without mass transport. More common types of RD waves are the propagation of an action potential in a nerve, the spread of electrical depolarization waves on the heart surface, the (human spectator) stadium wave, or a forest fire. All RD systems can be described with one set of coupled, nonlinear differential equations and experimentally investigated with, for example, a chemical tabletop model system, the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction.
Dr. Kathleen Weathers, Carey Institute, Ecosystem Ecologist, Tuesday, May 1, 2018 - A Passion for Lakes and Ecological Puzzles: How Cyanobacteria, Cyberinfrastructure, Citizens and Scientists are Advancing Freshwater Science
Abstract: Dr. Kathleen C. Weathers received her master’s degree from Yale University and Ph.D. from Rutgers University. Her research is focused on understanding how biology influences geochemical cycles: how lake cyanobacteria affect nutrient cycles, trees influence nitrogen cycling, or how fog and ecosystems interact at the spatial scale of landscapes and in the face of global environmental change. Dr. Weathers also works at the interface of science and citizen science focusing on lakes and watersheds. She is the G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair of Ecology and Senior Scientist at the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, NY, an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Ecological Society of America (ESA), and co-chair of the grassroots Global Lakes Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON). Weathers carries out biogeochemical research in ecosystems around the world focusing on carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elemental cycling.
Dr. Philip Hopke, Clarkson University, Director, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science (CARES) and Bayard D. Clarkson Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Tuesday, April 10, 2018 - Carbon Monoxide from Wood Pellets: Where it Comes From and How to Make it Go Away
Abstract: Wood stoves are an important heating option in the Northeast, and wood pellets are a popular choice for fuel. Although this combination produces far less pollution than the traditional wood burning stove, it is twice as polluting as an oil furnace, and no match for a natural gas furnace. Researchers are working on several projects to create and test wood pellet burners that run more efficiently and produce less pollution. Professor Hopke, Director of the Institute for Sustainable Environment at Clarkson University, is one of these researchers, and has been actively studying solid fuel combustion systems with an emphasis on emissions and efficiency. In this talk, he will explain the nature of the problem, and what the future prospects are.
Dr. Sankar Varanasi, Vassar Brothers Medical Center, Director, Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Service, Tuesday, February 13, 2018 -Think Outside the Pillbox
Abstract: Dr. Sankar Varanasi is Director of Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology at Vassar Brothers Medical Center. Dr. Varanasi will talk about new procedures in the field of cardiology to reduce risk of stroke and the need for long-term use of drugs that can have harmful side effects. An undergraduate at New Science College, India, Dr. Varanasi graduated with honors in biology, biochemistry and biostatistics. He obtained his MBBS (equivalent to an MD degree) at Osmania Medical College in India then followed these studies with a fellowship in adult cardiovascular medicine at Yale University/Norwalk Hospital. He was the first physician in the mid-Hudson Valley region to insert the state-of-the-art wireless S-ICD System™ defibrillator implant under a patient’s skin to monitor heart activity and deliver life-saving therapy if needed. He has authored and coauthored several papers on electrophysiology and has participated in multicenter studies, some sponsored by National Institutes of Health.