Relevant Topics from Symposium

  1. American Indians
    1. The historical significance of Wampum: How was wampum used by American Indians? What role did Europeans, especially the Dutch, play in making wampum a form of international currency?
      Paul Otto—the Dutch and Wampum
      Claudia Schnurmann
    2. Dutch relationship with Indians
      Jon Parmenter
    3. French relationship with Indians: How French ties with Algonquians and Hurons impacted the French, these Indians and others such as the Iroquois and their respective relationships with the English and the Dutch. Information about the Historic enmity between Iroquois and the French and the French and the English . Information about the French and Indian War.
      Leslie Choquette
      Jon Parmenter
      Timothy Shannon
    4. Comparison of English, Dutch, and French relationships with Indians. Did the Dutch enjoy the most successful relationship with Indians?
      Timothy Shannon
      Jon Parmenter
      Louis Roper
    5. How American Indians viewed themselves and Europeans.
      Jon Parmenter
    6. How Europeans viewed American Indians.
      Timothy Shannon
      Jon Parmenter
  2. European Colonies in America
    1. Comparison of New Netherlands and New France. Differences in policies and practices and short and long term consequences of these differences.
      Timothy Shannon
    2. The English takeover of New Netherlands during the struggle between England and Holland as part of a larger commercial rivalry in 17th century. Land distribution in the Colonies—for example, patroonships of the Dutch.
      Timothy Shannon
      Jaap Jacobs
    3. Why did New York colony become more important than New England?
      Timothy Shannon
    4. Why did the French seek a presence in America? Why were the French less successful in America than the English or the Dutch? Why were there fewer enslaved Africans in French settlements?
      Leslie Choquette
    5. The role of the Reformed Church in New Netherlands
      Willem Frijhoff
      Jaap Jacobs
    6. What is the Dutch legacy in America? What are some common myths about the Dutch? Is tolerance a Dutch virtue? Advantages and problems of diversity: “unstable pluralism.”
      Firth Fabend
      Willem Frijhoff
    7. What accounts for the success of the Dutch not only in America but also throughout the world in the 16 and 17th centuries? How was it possible for this relatively small country to have such prominence during the Age of Exploration and Colonization?
      Jaap Jacobs
      Louis Roper
    8. The role of joint stock companies in the discovery and settlement of America.
      Louis Roper
      Jaap Jacobs
      Jon Parmenter
  3. Geography
    1. Why was the Hudson River the focus of European rivalry in North America? Why the Hudson River was considered the most important river in early America?
      Timothy Shannon
    2. The geopolitical significance of the Connecticut River Valley
      Lauric Henneton
  4. Primary Sources: What can be learned from the use of primary sources? What are the advantages and disadvantages of using them to teach/learn history?
    1. Personal correspondence.
      Charles Gehring:. 1664 letter
    2. Timothy Shannon: Van Bergen Overmantel, Benjamin West paintings, Four Indian Kings and others
    3. Depictions of Indians in the Tercentennial celebration in Manhattan and what is learned about their self-view, their view of others, and how Europeans viewed American Indians.
      Jon Parmenter
    4. Maps
      Timothy Shannon
      Kees Zandvliet—16th century maps of the Americas
    5. Legal documents.
      Firth Fabend
    6. National Humanities Center: Overmantel Piece* (PDF)
  5. Slavery, Indentured Servants, Slaves, Slave Trade
    1. The development of slavery in America. How did the institution of slavery establish itself in America? The role played by the Dutch and the Dutch West India Company. Why did slavery take root more strongly in the Southern colonies?
      Louis Roper
    2. Should Enslaved Africans be considered Immigrants? What are the advantages and drawbacks of doing so?
      Joyce Goodfriend
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